BACKGROUND: Libya - KTRE.com | Lufkin and Nacogdoches, Texas

BACKGROUND: Libya

Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader, he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed, e.g., the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. Those sanctions were suspended in April 1999. 

GEOGRAPHY

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia 
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E 
Map references: Africa 
Area: total:  1,759,540 sq km

land:  1,759,540 sq km

water:  0 sq km 
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska 
Land boundaries: total:  4,383 km

border countries:  Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km 
Coastline: 1,770 km 
Maritime claims: territorial sea:  12 NM

note:  Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north 
Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior 
Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions 
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m

highest point:  Bikku Bitti 2,267 m 
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum 
Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  8%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  91% (1993 est.) 
Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1993 est.) 
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms 
Environment - current issues: desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities 
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban 

PEOPLE

Population: 5,240,599

note:  includes 662,669 non-nationals, of which an estimated 500,000 or more are Africans living in Libya (July 2001 est.) 
Age structure: 0-14 years:  35.41% (male 947,645; female 907,854)

15-64 years:  60.64% (male 1,645,085; female 1,533,066)

65 years and over:  3.95% (male 101,701; female 105,248) (2001 est.) 
Population growth rate: 2.42% (2001 est.) 
Birth rate: 27.67 births/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
Death rate : 3.51 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.97 male(s)/female

total population:  1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 28.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.65 years

male:  73.53 years

female:  77.88 years (2001 est.) 
Total fertility rate: 3.64 children born/woman (2001 est.) 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.) 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA 
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA 
Nationality: noun:  Libyan(s)

adjective:  Libyan 
Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians 
Religions: Sunni Muslim 97% 
Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities 
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  76.2%

male:  87.9%

female:  63% (1995 est.) 

GOVERNMENT

Country name: conventional long form:  Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

conventional short form:  Libya

local long form:  Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

local short form:  none 
Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship 
Capital: Tripoli 
Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions 
Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy) 
National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969) 
Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977 
Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory 
Executive branch: chief of state:  Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state

head of government:  Secretary of the General People's Committee (Premier) Mubarak al-SHAMEKH (since 2 March 2000)

cabinet:  General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress

elections:  national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 March 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results:  Mubarak al-SHAMEKH elected premier; percent of General People's Congress vote - NA% 
Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees) 
Judicial branch: Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: none 
Political pressure groups and leaders: various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements 
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO 
Diplomatic representation in the US: Libya does not have an embassy in the US 
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980 
Flag description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion) 

ECONOMY

Economy - overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. In this statist society, import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. Higher oil prices in 1999 and 2000 led to an increase in export revenues, which improved macroeconomic balances and helped to stimulate the economy. Following the suspension of UN sanctions in 1999, Libya has been trying to increase its attractiveness to foreign investors, and several foreign companies have visited in search of contracts. 
GDP: purchasing power parity - $45.4 billion (2000 est.) 
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2000 est.) 
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,900 (2000 est.) 
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  7%

industry:  47%

services:  46% (1997 est.) 
Population below poverty line: NA% 
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10% :  NA% 
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18.5% (2000 est.) 
Labor force: 1.5 million (2000 est.) 
Labor force - by occupation: services and government 54%, industry 29%, agriculture 17% (1997 est.) 
Unemployment rate: 30% (2000 est.) 
Budget: revenues:  $6.85 billion

expenditures:  $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) 
Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement 
Industrial production growth rate: NA% 
Electricity - production: 18.9 billion kWh (1999) 
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999) 
Electricity - consumption: 17.577 billion kWh (1999) 
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999) 
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999) 
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle 
Exports: $13.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.) 
Exports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products 
Exports - partners: Italy 33%, Germany 24%, Spain 10%, France 5%, Turkey 4%, Tunisia 4% (1999) 
Imports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.) 
Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods 
Imports - partners: Italy 24%, Germany 12%, Tunisia 9%, UK 7%, France 6%, South Korea 5% (1999) 
Debt - external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.) 
Economic aid - recipient: $8.4 million (1995) 
Currency: Libyan dinar (LYD) 
Currency code : LYD 
Exchange rates: Libyan dinars per US dollar - 0.5101 (January 2001), 0.5081 (2000), 0.4616 (1999), 0.3785 (1998), 0.3891 (1997), 0.3651 (1996)

note:  Libya currently has two rates for foreign trade; one for government operations and foreign companies and one for Libyan individuals (0.45 dinars per US dollar in December 1998) 
Fiscal year: calendar year 

COMMUNICATIONS

Telephones - main lines in use: 380,000 (1996) 
Telephones - mobile cellular: NA 
Telephone system: general assessment:  telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996

domestic:  microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international:  satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999) 
Radio broadcast stations : AM 17, FM 4, shortwave 3 (1998) 
Radios: 1.35 million (1997) 
Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus one low-power repeater) (1998) 
Televisions: 730,000 (1997) 
Internet country code: .ly 
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000) 
Internet users: 7,500 (2000) 

TRANSPORTATION

Railways: note:  Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a 1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but there has been little progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion originally set for mid-1994; Libya signed contracts with two private companies - Bahne of Egypt and Jez Sistemas Ferroviarios of Spain - in 1998 for the supply of crossings and pointwork (1001) 
Highways: total:  24,484 km

paved:  6,800 km

unpaved:  17,684 km (1996) 
Waterways: none 
Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km 
Ports and harbors: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah 
Merchant marine: total:  28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 399,725 GRT/654,843 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 4 (2000 est.) 
Airports: 136 (2000 est.) 
Airports - with paved runways: total:  58

over 3,047 m:  23

2,438 to 3,047 m:  6

1,524 to 2,437 m:  22

914 to 1,523 m:  5

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.) 
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  78

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  14

914 to 1,523 m:  40

under 914 m:  18 (2000 est.) 

MILITARY

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command 
Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age 
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,459,400 (2001 est.) 
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  866,012 (2001 est.) 
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  61,694 (2001 est.) 
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (FY99/00) 
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY99/00) 

TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger and also a part of southeastern Algeria 

Source: Central Intelligence Agency

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